AFC has extensive expertise in commercial scale production using highly energetic chemistries. Our toolbox offers a rich palette of clean, reliable, and scalable reactions. Energetic chemistries often offer a clean and efficient synthetic route and can be scaled safely at AFC using specialized process development expertise and processing technologies. Development and production of energetic chemistries at AFC can be performed from laboratory to commercial scale under cGMP compliant conditions in the United States.

AFC approaches evaluation, development, and scale up of energetic chemistries with a combination of process hazard evaluation, process development techniques, and specialized technology to ensure safe and reliable production.

Process Hazard Evaluation:

  • Thermal Decomposition Analysis
  • Ranging Tests to Determine Safe Processing Control Limits
  • Reaction Calorimetry
  • Monitoring of Hazardous Reagents, Products, and By-products
  • Process Hazard Analysis Prior to Each Stage of Scale-Up

Process Development:

  • R&D facility
  • Remotely operated development bays
  • Batch, CSTR, or Tube Reactor demonstration
  • Specially designed continuous skid
  • Kg scale batch hydrogenation

Specialized Energetic Batch Manufacturing Facilities:

AFC has specially engineered facilities for conducting energetic chemistries:

  • Azide Rated Pilot Facilities (100-500 gal) (0.38-1.89 m³) and Production Lines (1,500-2,000 gal) (5.68-7.57 m³)
  • Continuous Diazomethane Generation Capability at Commercial Scale
  • Commercial Scale Experience with Aziridines, Hydrazines, Azides, Diazomethane, Isocyanates, and Other Diazo Chemistries

Continuous Reactions for Hazardous Processes:

  • Continuous Diazomethane Generator:
    • Safe production of over 1,600 batches of cGMP diazomethane in a 750 gallon (2.84 m³) scale multi-product facility
    • Production capacity over 100’s of MTA
  • Continuous Modular Tube Reactor:
    • Grignard reactions
    • Static mixer and flow control
    • Over 100 kg in 24 h
    • Variable configuration

AFC has Specialized Experience in the Following Energetic Chemistries:

Technology Example
Azide Sodium azide, hydrazoic acid
Diazo Diazomethane, ethyl diazoacetate
Aziridines Ethylene Imine, methyl aziridine
Nitrations Mixed acids, acetyl nitrate
Isocyanates Methyl isocyanate
Ozone Continuous or batch ozonolysis
Hydrogenation Batch and continuous
Others Sodium cyanide, hydrazine, phosgene, halogenated solvents, benzene, Pyrophoric reagents